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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f0\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2586\margr4261\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2586\margrsxn4261\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f0\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-5\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 \'a3\hich\af0\dbch\af1\loch\f0\cchs0  Salatura in the notth-west, Panini is chiefly known for \expndtw7 is work on grammar, the \i ^^^lj^ \i0 which is a monu-\expndtw10 icnt of thoroughness \i ^^^^Sg^tSIc faenty" \i0 Inci-\expndtw1 entally, however, he gives bits of information useful \expndtw2 >r historical purpose.\super 1\nosupersub  During his time, the Aryans \expndtw0 rere probably unfamiliar with the Dekkan, for where-\expndtw-1 3 he mentions Kaccha (Cutch) in the west, Kalinga in ic east., and Avanti in the south, no name of a place \expndtw7 eyond the Vindhyas occurs in his Grammar, The \expndtw-4 :ates \i (janapadas\\ \i0 of which he knew about twenty-two, \expndtw-5 ^ere called after their peoples, like the Gandharis, Mad-\expndtw4 is, Yaudheyas, Kosalas, Vrijjis, etc. He also speaks \expndtw-4 f such territorial units as \i Vtsaya \i0 (province or division), \i\expndtw-5 3agara \i0 (city) and \i Grama \i0 (village). Monarchy was the \expndtw-7 orm, but there are references to \i Ganas \i0 and \i Samghas \i0 too. \expndtw-5 'he king was the supreme head in all matters, and below \expndtw-2 im, as shown by Dr. R.IC, Mookerji,\super 2\nosupersub  were the \i Pan-\expndtw-8 zdyas \i0 i.e., members of the \i Parisat \i0 (council), \i Adhyaksas \i0\expndtw-1 leads of departments), \i Vydvahdrika \i0 (Law-officer), \i\expndtw-4 ^.upaytka \i0 (literally, one who devises ways and means. \expndtw-5 ^as he in charge of finance?), \i Yufetas \i0 (officers in gene-\expndtw4 al), and other functionaries of administration. Fur-\expndtw-5 tier, we get a few details about the economic life of the \expndtw1 eople as well. It appears from Panini that the main \expndtw0 ources of livelihood were agriculture, service \i (Jdna-\expndtw-1 adi vritti\\ \i0 profession of arms and labour. Trade and \expndtw-6 usiness \i (kraya-vikraya) \i0 flourished, and loans were ad-\expndtw2 anced on interest. Among the crafts, he mentions \expndtw-4 reaving, dyeing, leather-working^ hunting, carpentry, ottery-making, etc. He also records the existence of \expndtw2 raft-corporations or guilds \i (jbugas). \i0 These organi-\expndtw-3 ations must have helped specialisation and promoted \expndtw3 sense of discipline and respect for law.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb290\sa0\sl-216\slmult0 \f0\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1\nosupersub Dr. R.  K.  Mookerji, \i Hindu Civilisation, \i0 Ch. VI\sub S\nosupersub  pp. 120 f. \expndtw12 : is a book full of useful information. \super\expndtw-4 2\nosupersub  \i Ibid., \i0 pp. 121-27.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f0\fs20\par }